1948, David Ogilvy, The father of advertising 1967, Philip Kotler, 4P (Product, Price, Place[Distribution], Promotion), 4R, 4I AL Ries said: > - Rosser Reeves, 1910, Unique Sales Position - David Ogilvy, 1911-1999, Continue Investment to Ad - Leo Burnett, 1891-1971, Creativity
4P 走出了广告唯一的视角，开始围绕产品，价格，渠道和促销来做全面思考。 4C 加强了对“需求”和“关系”的关注，强调品牌不仅是在卖东西，而是持续性地经营与消费者的关系。 SWOT, PEST, STP (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning)，Michael Porter (1980s) 五力模型，带来了3大战略思想：
总体成本领先 差异化 专一化 Don Schultz (1934) in Mid-1980s IMC(Integrated Marketing Communication): > 其核心是将企业与市场营销相关的一切传播一元化。广告、促销、公关、直销、CI、包装、PR全部纳入营销的范畴。另一方面要求企业能够将统一的信息传达给消费者Speak With One Voice。
移动时代的营销本质——价值驱动 David Ricardo came up in his “On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” (1817)—–Theory of Comparative Advantage Heckscher-Ohiln theory (H-O 理论) ——Factor Proportions Theory
10.17.1 Customer Decision Journey
Build awareness: Do consumers recall and recognize my brand?
Influence consideration: Do my products satisfy consumers’ needs?
Improve sales process: Do my sales efforts result in wins for my brands?
Reposition the brand: Do the experiences I deliver fulfill customer expectations?
Grow loyalty: Do consumers advocate for my brands?
10.18 China Outlook 2016
10.18.1 Business Environment
China’s growth benefited from the contributions of the consumption and service-realted sector E-commerce turned to a pillar of growth Reducing costs and other barriers to entry Increasing competition Driving down prices Unlocking new demand
Two track economy: Slow growing: Traditional sectors (steel shipbuilding, real estate and industrial products sectors), increasing pressure to restructure, overcapacity problems, comply with stricter international and environmental standards Faster growing: E-commerce & logistics, medical devices, services high-end, manufacturing, agribusiness, spur innovation entrepreneurial activity Investment-intensive export-led ——> consumption & innovation driver
10.18.2 Out Direct Investment (ODI)
Teritary inducsty: services & consumer-related sectors, Healthcare, entertainment, high-tech Looking forward: Sectors Acquiring experience, technology, brands and human capital to become more competitive Accessing high-quality products and services, agriculture and food production, healthcare and eldercare Creating new sources of demand for products and services affected by overcapacity issues in the domestic market Sourcing investments which allow Chinese companies to diversity their portfolio risk and earn more stable returns Building a credible track record that facilitates expansion into new markets, particularly in developed economies Types of investors Insurance companies Financial investors Chinese private equity funds Chinese-backed venture capital firms Countries More investments will be made in NA, Europe and other developed economies More projects and investments will be undertaken along the “Belt and Road” Government initiativs The “Belt and Road” initiative International Production Capacity Cooperation Third-country Market Cooperation New funding sources Free trade agreements
6.6.1 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Services, advanced manufacturing, consumer market, basic manufacturing & heavy industry FDI flows by destination region in China Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone Free Trade Zones (FTZs) in Tianjin Fujian and Guangdong Looking forward Sectors Need for foreign technology,knowhow(专门技术) and capital in the service sector (demands of expanding middle class), generate FDI opportunities in: healthcare, logistics, e-commerce, computer technology and consumer goods. Strong aspirations for a cleaner healthier and more inclusive society increase the productivity and international competitiveness of China’s manufacturing sector (made in China 2025, opportunity for advanced manufacturing and automation) Need for advanced technology and expertise in highly specialized field within traditional sectors in order to reduce operating cost. This includes the development of non-conventional energy resources and technologies that provide for more efficient, cleaner utilization of current energy sources. The government’s capacity to provide public goods is being strained by the high local debt levels and the country’s rapid urbanization rates. This will drive significant opportunities fro foreign capital to participate in social infrastructure projects including healthcare and education, among other ares. Government initiatives Increasing market openness (Draft Foreign Investment Law, Revised Foreign Investment Industrial Guidance Catalogue, New FTZs,) Urbanisation and private-public partnerships SOE reform Made in China 2025 and internet plus: set out a path for China to move up the value chain in the next decade by leveraging the latest advances in information communication technology, advanced manufacturing and automation technologies to increase the productivity of then country’s traditional industries. Data management technologies such as cloud computing and big data analytics, “internet of things” , allow Chinese firms to better address consumers’ demands, lower operating costs, and increase the added-value of their products. New opportunities: modernise its agricultural industry, agro-inductrial automation, big data, cloud computing and modern machinery